First blue sky, then dust, then thunder, then rain in a a matter of minutes in parts of the NSW Central West.
Dubbo, Parkes and western parts of the region were hammered on Sunday night.
A low pressure trough passed across the area and whipped up strong winds around 7.40pm, Weatherzone meteorologist Felix Fevesque said.
"If it's dry it picks up the dust," he said. "The trough was moving from west to east."
Bureau of Meteorology data recorded very strong winds in many places on Sunday evening, with gusts reaching up to 107km/h in Dubbo at 7.41pm, while Parkes had gusts up to 95km/h.
In Forbes winds peaked at 83km/h and in Cowra they reached 61km/h.
Overnight 34.8 millimetres of rain was recorded in Cowra, Forbes received 11.8mm, while Dubbo had 2.2mmm, Parkes had 4.0mm and Young received 2.0mm.
Mr Levesque said dust storms were difficult to forecast, but "dry and windy weather are the two main ingredients".
"In droughts the moisture is less available and it increases the likelihood of a dust storm," he said.